Checking in on Martin Luther King Jr.’s Dream, with Data
Social Explorer takes a look at the demographics of the legendary activist’s hometown then and now to see how it has (and has not) changed. King was born in 1929, so we will examine Census data from 1930, 1940, and the latest Census and American Community Survey data.
His boyhood home is now a historic site, situated at 450 Auburn Avenue Northeast, in Fulton County (part of Atlanta). In 1930, Fulton County had a population of 318,587 residents. A little over two thirds of the population was white (68.1 percent) and almost one third of the population was African American (31.9 percent). Today, the 920,581-member population split is nearly even at 44.5 percent white and 44.1 percent African American, according to 2010 Census data. Fulton's population is more African American than the United States as a whole (12.6 percent), but not as as much as Atlanta (54.0 percent).
A closer look at 1940s Census data of the Atlanta area offers more detail about where the black and white populations lived. The following map shows the distribution of the black population in the Atlanta of King’s youth. Plainly, African Americans lived together, largely apart from whites.
African American Population in Fulton County, GA, and Surroundings, 1940 (click map to explore)
For comparison, the following map shows where the black population lives today. Now the black population has expanded in the metro area, but still seems to be quite segregated.
African American Population in Fulton County, GA, and Surroundings, 2010 (click map to explore)
Reflecting on a century after the end of slavery, King said in his famous "I Have a Dream" speech of 1963:
But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years later, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. One hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we've come here today to dramatize a shameful condition.
The quest for equal rights and freedoms made up part of a larger vision. In 1967, he spoke of aspiring for full equality at a speech at the Victory Baptist Church in Los Angeles:
Our struggle in the first phase was a struggle for decency. Now we are in the phase where there is a struggle for genuine equality. This is much more difficult. We aren’t merely struggling to integrate the lunch counter now. We're struggling to get some money to be able to buy a hamburger or a steak when we get to the counter...
He went on to say that this would require a commitment of not only political initiative but also money, "It didn't cost the nation one penny to integrate lunch counters. It didn't cost the nation one penny to guarantee the right to vote. The problems that we are facing today will cost the nation billions of dollars."
In 1968, King and other activists launched the Poor People's Campaign, advocating for economic justice to address these imbalances in opportunity and resources. A few months later, he was assassinated.
We can look at different socioeconomic indicators to measure the country’s progress towards equality. According to 1940 Census data, more than a third (36.5 percent) of housing units in Fulton County where whites lived were owner occupied, compared to less than a seventh (14.0 percent) of the housing units where African Americans lived.
Today, home ownership increased for both groups, but the gap remains. Two thirds (66.6 percent) of white households are owner-occupied, compared to two fifths (41.7 percent) of all black households.
Home Ownership Comparison in Fulton, GA, by Race
We will now examine other measures of equality to see examples of additional gaps.
The unemployment rate is nearly twice as high among African Americans (17.9 percent) compared to among whites nationwide (9.5 percent). That gap is even more pronounced in Fulton County, where the unemployment rate for whites is 7.7 percent, while the unemployment rate for African Americans is 20.4 percent.
The percent of those living below poverty is also higher in the black community (27.2 percent) than in the white community (12.5 percent). While both groups are better off in Fulton County than the rest of the US, the poverty rate gap is even larger (8.2 percent among whites and 26.6 percent among African Americans in Fulton).
Similarly, while both groups are better educated in Fulton County compared to the rest of the US, nearly two thirds (62.4 percent) of white adults in the county have BA degrees or more, while just one quarter (25.3 percent) of the black population have the same level of education. The college attainment gap is 11.6 percentage points nationwide, but 37.1 percentage points in Fulton County.
While much progress towards freedom and equality has been made since King's time, chronic gaps persist, even in his own backyard. The data show that 50 years after the "I Have a Dream Speech,"equal opportunity and socioeconomic status continue to lag behind equal rights.